Thursday, May 26, 2011

The Revolt of 1857-ugc


The Revolt of 1857-ugc

The Beginning
1-The earliest incident being the revolt in the 19th Native Infantry in Berhampur.
2-29th March 1S57— First spark of revolt at Barrackpore in Bengal where Mangal Pandey killed the
British adjutant and was later hanged for tiring on senior officers.
3-10th May IS57—Ninety sepoys of 3rd Native Regiment at Meerut revolted on the issue of the greased
cartridges. After their trial and execution, entire garrison in Meerut revolted and raised the cry of ‘Delhi
Chalo’.


CENTRES OF REVOLT AND THEIR LEADERS

1-Delhi -Bahadur Shah II, General Bakht Khan
2-Kanpur -Nana Sahib. Tantiya Tope, Azimullah Khan
3-Lucknow- Begum Hazrat Mahal (Awadh), Maulvi
Ahmadullah of Faizabad
4-Jhansi -Rani Laxmi Bai
5-Bareilly- Khan Bahadur Khan
6-Arrah (Bihar) -Kunwar Singh of Jagdishpur.

CAUSES OF THE REVOLT

Political
1-Nana Sahib was refused pension, as he was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II.
2-Lucknow was annexed in 1856. on charges of maladministration and Jhansi was annexed owing to
Doctrine of Lapse.

Military Discrimination
1-Indian soldiers were paid low salaries: they could not use above the rank of subedar and were racially
insulted. The soldiers were also distressed by the fact that their cherished Awadh stale had been annexed by the British.

Religious Discrimination
1-British social reforms (widow remarriage, abolition of Sati, school for girls. Christian missionaries)
2- Rumours that Enfield rifles used greased (by pork or beef) cartridges.

Economic Grievances
1-Heavy taxation, summary evictions, discriminatory tariff policy against Indian products & destruction of
traditional handicrafts that hit peasants, artisans and small zamindars.

SUPPRESSION OF THE REVOLT

1-Delhi: Recaptured on 20 Sept 1X57 by John Nicholson Kanpur: Recaptured on 6 December 1857 by Colin Campbell.
2-Lucknow: Recaptured on 21 March 1858 by Colin Campbell.
3-Jhansi: Recaptured by Hugh Rose
4-Arrah: William Taylor and Eyre suppressed the revolt.

FATE OF THE LEADERS

1-Bahadur Shah II - Deported to Rangoon, where he died in 1862. His sons were shot dead.
2-Nana Sahib & Begun Hazrat Mahal - Escaped to Nepal Rani Jhansi - Died in the battle field.
2- Tantia Tope - Was captured & executed on 15th April 1859.

WHO SAID WHAT ABOUT 1857 REVOLT
1-British Historians - A Mutiny, due to the use of greased cartridges.
2-Disraeli (Opposition Leader) - A national revolt rooted in deep mistrust.
3-V D Savarkar- First War of Independence.
4-S B Choudhary - Civil Rebellion.
5-R C Majumdar - Neither “first” nor “national” nor ‘a war of independence”.
6-S n Sen - An effort by the conservative elements to turn the clock back
7-Marxists - A soldier-peasant struggle against foreign and feudal bondage
8-Malleson - Sepoy Mutiny.

CAUSES OF FAILURE
1-Lack of coordination and central leadership.
2-Revolt lacked a forward-looking programme, coherent ideology, apolitical perspective or a vision of
the future society and economy.
3-Rebel leaders lacked resources and experience as compared to British
4-Revolt lacked the support of martial races of the north.
5-British power had remained intact in the Eastern. Western it Southern pans of India from where the forces were sent to suppress the revolt.
6-Tacit support of certain sections of Indian public l modern educated Indians) to British authorities
7-Lack of coherent ideology and political perspective
8- Limited territorial and social base.

IMPACT OF THE MUTINY
1-In August 1858. the British Parliament passed ail Act. which put an end to the rule of the Company. The
control of the British government in India was transferred to the British Crown.
2-A minister of the British government, called the Secretary of State, was made responsible for the government of India.
3-The British Governor-General of India was now also given the title of Viceroy, who was also the
representative of the monarch.
4-Marked the end of British Imperialism & Princely starts where assured against annexation. Doctrine of
lapse was withdrawn
5-After the revolt, the British pursued the policy of divide and rule.
6-far-reaching changes were made in the administration and increase of while soldiers in the army.
7-Total expense of the suppression was borne by Indians.

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